The author has a GADT that represents well-scoped, well-typed lambda-terms, which is nice as it captures the structure of the data very well.
type ('e, 'a) idx = | Zero : (('e * 'a), 'a) idx | Succ : ('e, 'a) idx -> ('e * 'b, 'a) idx type ('e, 'a) texp = | Var : ('e, 'a) idx -> ('e, 'a) texp | Lam : (('e * 'a), 'b) texp -> ('e, 'a -> 'b) texp | App : ('e, 'a -> 'b) texp * ('e, 'a) texp -> ('e, 'b) texp
With this representation,
'e represents a type environment, and
'a represents the type of a term. For example,
fun (x : 'a) -> fun (y : 'b) -> x would be written as
Lam (Lam (Var (Succ Zero))), whose type is
('e, 'a -> 'b -> 'a) texp: in any environment
'e, this term has type
'a -> 'b -> 'a. The result of the function
y is represented by
Var (Succ Zero), of type
(('e * 'a) * 'b, 'a) texp: in an environment that extends
'e with a first variable of type
'a and a second variable of type
'b, this term has type
Zero means “the last variable introduced in the context”, and
Succ Zero means “the variable before that”, so here the variable of type
'a. (This representation of variables by numbers, with 0 being the last variable, is standard in programming-language theory, it is called “De Bruijn indices”.)
Problem: we have seen how to express a fixed, well-typed term, but how could we turn an arbitrary term provided at runtime (say, as a s-expression or a parse-tree) into this highly-structured implementation?
Implementing a parser for lambda-terms is rather standard, but here we are trying to do the next step, to implement a “parser” from a standard AST to this well-typed GADT representation.
Suppose we start from the following representation, which may have been “parsed” from some input string from a standard parser:
type uty = | Unit | Arr of uty * uty type uexp = | Var of int | Lam of uty * uexp | App of uexp * uexp
Can we write a function that converts an
uexp (untyped expression) into a
('e, 'a) texp (typed expression) for some
If you want to take this post as a puzzle for yourself, feel free to stop here and try to solve the problem. In the next section I’m going to explain just the high-level details of my solution (types and type signatures), so you can still have fun implementing the actual functions. The post ends with my full code.
To “parse” an untyped expression into a well-typed GADT, we are in fact implementing a type-checker. We can think of implementing a type-checker without any GADT stuff: we need to traverse the type, maintain information about the typing environment, and sometimes check equalities between types (for the application form
App(f, arg), the input type of
f must be equal to the type of
arg). Then the general idea is to do exactly the same thing, in a “type-enriched” way: our code needs to propagate type-level information to build our GADT at the same time.
For example, instead of an “untyped” representation of the environment, that would be basically
uty list, we will use a GADT-representation of the environment, with the same runtime information but richer static types:
type 'a ty = | Unit : unit ty | Arr : 'a ty * 'b ty -> ('a -> 'b) ty type 'e env = | Empty : unit env | Cons : 'e env * 'a ty -> ('e * 'a) env
Notice in particular how
'a ty gives a dynamic/runtime value that encodes the content of the type
'a. (I made the choice to restrict the language type system to a single base type,
Unit; we could add more constants/primitive types, but embedding any OCaml type would be more difficult for reasons that will show up soon.)
We cannot write OCaml code that checks, at runtime, whether
'b are the same type, but we can check whether two values of type
'a ty and
'b ty are equal. In fact, when they are, we can even get a proof (as a GADT) that
'a = 'b:
(* a value of type ('a, 'b) eq is a proof that ('a = 'b) *) type (_, _) eq = Refl : ('a, 'a) eq exception Clash (* ensures that (a = b) or raises Clash *) let rec eq_ty : type a b . a ty -> b ty -> (a, b) eq = ...
Our type-checking function will get a type environent
'e env and an untyped expression
uexp, and it should produce some
('e, 'a) texp – or fail with an exception. But if the
uexp is produced at runtime, we don’t know what its type
'a will be. To represent this, we use an “existential packing” of our type
('e, 'a) texp:
type 'e some_texp = Exp : 'a ty * ('e, 'a) texp -> 'e some_texp
'e some_texp morally expresses
exists 'a. ('e, 'a) texp; this is a standard GADT programming pattern.
'a ty argument, which gives us a runtime witness/singleton for the type
'a is unknown, but we have a dynamic representation of it that we can use for printing, equality checking etc. (And our unknown
'a is restricted to the subset of types that can be valid parameters of
'a ty.) This is a standard extension of the standard pattern, which one may call “existential packing with dynamic witness”.
In fact, we will need “existential packings” of some other GADTs that
will be dynamically produced by our type-checker.
type some_ty = Ty : 'a ty -> some_ty type 'e some_idx = Idx : 'a ty * ('e, 'a) idx -> 'e some_idx
We can “parse” an untyped
uty value into a well-typed
'a ty value, in fact its existential counterpart
let rec check_ty : uty -> some_ty = function ...
Given a type environment
'e env, we can “typecheck” an untyped variable (De Bruijn index) of type
int into a well-typed representation
('e, 'a) idx for some unknown
'a determined at runtime.
exception Ill_scoped let rec check_var : type e . e env -> int -> e some_idx = fun env n -> ...
If the integer
n is out of bounds (negative or above the environment size), the function raises an
Ill_scoped exception. It is not standard to use untyped exception for error-handling in this kind of programs, but extremely convenient – it lets us write
let (Idx (ty, var)) = check_var env n in ..., instead of having to both with options,
result or some other error monad. There is not enough information in our exceptions to provide decent error messages, but who needs decent error messages, right?
Finally we can write the main typechecking function for expressions:
exception Ill_typed let rec check : type a e. e env -> uexp -> e some_texp = fun env exp -> ...
# check Empty (Lam (Unit, Lam (Unit, Var 1)));; - : unit some_texp = Exp (Arr (Unit, Arr (Unit, Unit)), Lam (Lam (Var (Succ Zero))))
(* well-typed representations *) type ('e, 'a) idx = | Zero : (('e * 'a), 'a) idx | Succ : ('e, 'a) idx -> ('e * 'b, 'a) idx type ('e, 'a) texp = | Var : ('e, 'a) idx -> ('e, 'a) texp | Lam : (('e * 'a), 'b) texp -> ('e, 'a -> 'b) texp | App : ('e, 'a -> 'b) texp * ('e, 'a) texp -> ('e, 'b) texp let example = Lam (Lam (Var (Succ Zero))) (* untyped representations *) type uty = | Unit | Arr of uty * uty type uexp = | Var of int | Lam of uty * uexp | App of uexp * uexp (* singleton types to express type-checking *) type 'a ty = | Unit : unit ty | Arr : 'a ty * 'b ty -> ('a -> 'b) ty type 'e env = | Empty : unit env | Cons : 'e env * 'a ty -> ('e * 'a) env (* existential types *) type some_ty = Ty : 'a ty -> some_ty type 'e some_idx = Idx : 'a ty * ('e, 'a) idx -> 'e some_idx type 'e some_texp = Exp : 'a ty * ('e, 'a) texp -> 'e some_texp (* dynamic type equality check *) type (_, _) eq = Refl : ('a, 'a) eq exception Clash let rec eq_ty : type a b . a ty -> b ty -> (a, b) eq = fun ta tb -> match (ta, tb) with | (Unit, Unit) -> Refl | (Unit, Arr _) | (Arr _, Unit) -> raise Clash | (Arr (ta1, ta2), Arr (tb1, tb2)) -> let Refl = eq_ty ta1 tb1 in let Refl = eq_ty ta2 tb2 in Refl (* "checking" a type (no failure) *) let rec check_ty : uty -> some_ty = function | Unit -> Ty Unit | Arr (ta, tb) -> let (Ty ta) = check_ty ta in let (Ty tb) = check_ty tb in Ty (Arr (ta, tb)) (* "checking" a variable *) exception Ill_scoped let rec check_var : type e . e env -> int -> e some_idx = fun env n -> match env with | Empty -> raise Ill_scoped | Cons (env, ty) -> if n = 0 then Idx (ty, Zero) else let (Idx (tyn, idx)) = check_var env (n - 1) in Idx (tyn, Succ idx) (* "checking" an input expression *) exception Ill_typed let rec check : type a e. e env -> uexp -> e some_texp = fun env exp -> match exp with | Var n -> let (Idx (ty, n)) = check_var env n in Exp (ty, Var n) | Lam (tya, exp') -> let (Ty tya) = check_ty tya in let (Exp (tyb, exp')) = check (Cons (env, tya)) exp' in Exp (Arr (tya, tyb), Lam exp') | App (exp_f, exp_arg) -> let (Exp (ty_f, exp_f)) = check env exp_f in let (Exp (ty_arg, exp_arg)) = check env exp_arg in begin match ty_f with | Unit -> raise Ill_typed | Arr (ty_arg', ty_res) -> let Refl = eq_ty ty_arg ty_arg' in Exp (ty_res, App (exp_f, exp_arg)) end