Multicore OCaml: August 2020

Welcome to the August 2020 Multicore OCaml report (a few weeks late due to August slowdown). This update along with the previous updates have been compiled by @shakthimaan, @kayceesrk and myself.

There are some talks related to multicore OCaml which are now freely available online:

The Multicore OCaml project has had a number of optimisations and performance improvements in the month of August 2020:

  • The PR on the implementation of systhreads with pthreads continues to undergo review and improvement. When merged, this opens up the possibility of installing dune and other packages with Multicore OCaml.
  • Implementations of mutex and condition variables is also now under review for the Domain module.
  • Work has begun on implementing GC safe points to ensure reliable, low-latency garbage collection can occur.

We would like to particularly thank these external contributors:

  • Albin Coquereau and Guillaume Bury for their comments and recommendations on building Alt-Ergo.2.3.2 with dune.2.6.0 and Multicore OCaml 4.10.0 in a sandbox environment.
  • @Leonidas for testing the code size metric implementation with Core and Async, and for code review changes.

Contributions such as the above towards adapting your projects with our benchmarking suites are always most welcome. As with previous updates, we begin with the Multicore OCaml updates, which are then followed by the enchancements and bug fixes to the Sandmark benchmarking project. The upstream OCaml ongoing and completed tasks are finally mentioned for your reference.

Multicore OCaml

Ongoing

  • ocaml-multicore/ocaml-multicore#381
    Reimplementating systhreads with pthreads

    This PR has made tremendous progress with additions to domain API,
    changes in interaction with the backup thread, and bug fixes. We are
    now able to build dune.2.6.1 and utop with this PR for Multicore
    OCaml, and it is ready for review!

  • ocaml-multicore/ocaml-multicore#384
    Add a primitive to insert nop instruction

    The nop primitive is introduced to identify the start and end of
    an instruction sequence to aid in debugging low-level code.

  • ocaml-multicore/ocaml-multicore#390
    Initial implementation of Mutexes and Condition Variables

    A draft proposal that adds support for Mutex variables and Condition
    operations for the Multicore runtime.

Completed

Optimisations

  • ocaml-multicore/domainslib#16
    Improvement of parallel_for implementation

    A divide-and-conquer scheme is introduced to distribute work in
    parallel_for, and the chunk_size is made a parameter to improve
    scaling with more than 8-16 cores. The blue line in the following
    illustration shows the improvement for few benchmarks in Sandmark
    using the default chunk_size along with this PR:

  • ocaml-multicore/multicore-opam
    Use -j%{jobs}% for multicore variant builds

    The use of -j%{jobs}% in the build step for multicore variants
    will speed up opam installs.

  • ocaml-multicore/ocaml-multicore#374
    Force major slice on minor collection

    A minor collection will need to schedule a major collection, if a
    blocked thread may not progress the major GC when servicing the
    minor collector through handle_interrupt.

  • ocaml-multicore/ocaml-multicore#378
    Hold onto empty pools if swept while allocating

    An optimization to improve pause times and reduce the number of
    locks by using a release_to_global_pool flag in pool_sweep
    function that continues to hold onto the empty pools.

  • ocaml-multicore/ocaml-multicore#379
    Interruptible mark and sweep

    The mark and sweep work is now made interruptible so that domains
    can enter the stop-the-world minor collections even if one domain is
    performing a large task. For example, for the binary tree benchmark
    with four domains, major work (pink) in domain three stalls progress
    for other domains as observed in the eventlog.

    With this patch, we can observe that the major work in domains two
    and four make progress in the following illustration:

  • ocaml-multicore/ocaml-multicore#380
    Make DLS call to caml_domain_dls_get @@noalloc

    The caml_dls_get is tagged with @@noalloc to reduce the C call
    overhead.

  • ocaml-multicore/ocaml-multicore#382
    Optimise caml_continuation_use_function

    A couple of optimisations that yield 25% performance improvements
    for the generator example by using caml_domain_alone, and using
    caml_gc_log under DEBUG mode.

  • ocaml-multicore/ocaml-multicore#389
    Avoid holding domain_lock when using backup thread

    The wait time for the main OCaml thread is reduced by altering the
    backup thread logic without holding the domain_lock for the
    BT_IN_BLOCKING_SECTION.

Sundries

Benchmarking

Ongoing

  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#122
    Measurements of code size

    The code size of a benchmark is one measurement that is required for
    flambda branch. A
    PR has been
    created that now emits a count of the CAML symbols in the output of
    a bench result as shown below:

    {"name":"knucleotide.", ... ,"codesize":276859.0, ...}
    
  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#169
    Add check_url for .json and pkg-config, m4 in Makefile

    A check_url target in the Makefile has been defined to ensure that
    the ocaml-versions/*.json files have a URL parameter. The patch
    also adds pkg-config and m4 to Ubuntu dependencies.

Completed

Benchmarks

  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#107
    Add Coq benchmarks

    The fraplib library from the Formal Reasoning About
    Programs
    has been dunified and
    included in Sandmark for Coq benchmarks.

  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#151
    Evolutionary algorithm parallel benchmark

    The evolutionary algorithm parallel benchmark is now added to Sandmark.

  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#152
    LU decomposition: random numbers initialisation in parallel

    The random number initialisation for the LU decomposition benchmark
    now has parallelism that uses Domain.DLS and Random.State.

  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#153
    Add computationally intensive Coq benchmarks

    The BasicSyntax and AbstractInterpretation Coq files perform a
    lot of minor GCs and allocations, and have been added as benchmarks
    to Sandmark.

  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#155
    Sequential version of Evolutionary Algorithm

    The sequential version of algorithms are used for comparison with
    their respective parallel implementations. A sequential
    implementation for the Evolutionary Algorithm has now been included
    in Sandmark.

  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#157
    Minilight Multicore: Port to Task API and DLS for Random States

    The Minilight benchmark has been ported to use the Task API along
    with the use of Domain Local Storage for the Random States. The
    speedup is shown in the following illustration:

    PR 157 Image

  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#164
    Tweaks to multicore-numerical/game_of_life

    The board_size for the Game of Life numerical benchmark is now
    configurable, and can be supplied as an argument.

Bug Fixes

  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#156
    Fix calculation of Nbody Multicore

    Minor fixes in the calculation of interactions of the bodies in the
    Nbody implementation, and use of local ref vars to reduce writes and
    cache traffic.

  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#158
    Fix key error for Grammatrix for Jupyter notebook

    The Key Error issue with notebooks/parallel/parallel.ipynb is
    now resolved by passing a value to params in the
    multicore_parallel_run_config.json file.

Sundries

  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#154
    Revert PARAMWRAPPER changes

    Undo the PARAMWRAPPER configuration for parallel benchmark runs in
    the Makefile, as they are not required for sequential execution.

  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#160
    Specify prefix,libdir for alt-ergo sandbox builds

    The alt-ergo library and parser require the prefix and libdir
    to be specified with configure in order to build in a sandbox
    environment. The initial discussion is available at
    OCamlPro/alt-ergo#351.

  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#162
    Avoid installing packages which are unused for Multicore runs

    The PACKAGES variable in the Makefile has been simplified to
    include only those dependency packages that are required to build
    Sandmark.

  • ocaml-bench/sandmark#163
    Update to domainslib 0.2.2 and use default chunk_size

    The domainslib dependency package has been updated to use the
    0.2.2 released version, and chunk_size for various benchmarks uses
    num_tasks/num_domains as default.

OCaml

Ongoing

  • ocaml/ocaml#9756
    Garbage collectors colour change

    The PR is needed for use with the Multicore OCaml major collector by
    removing the need of gray colour in the garbage collector (GC)
    colour scheme.

Completed

  • ocaml/ocaml#9722
    EINTR-based signals, again

    The patch provides a new implementation to solve a collection of
    locking, signal-handling and error checking issues.

Our thanks to all the OCaml developers and users in the community for their support and contribution to the project. Stay safe!

Acronyms

  • API: Application Programming Interface
  • DLS: Domain Local Storage
  • GC: Garbage Collector
  • OPAM: OCaml Package Manager
  • LU: Lower Upper (decomposition)
  • PR: Pull Request
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